Portuguese grammar is basically the same as the English language but, there are of course differences. In this section of my site I will talk about some of the most important areas of this language that I think you should know about. Remember! this is all open source material & if you already have a good working knowledge of the Portuguese language then maybe it will be just reinforcement for you. Consider the content on this site simply a reference. Below is a list of the key subjects I will explain in this section:
In the Portuguese language, most nouns / words are either Feminine or masculine. As in the Spanish language, there are rules in Portuguese which indicates when a word is feminine or masculine (and of course there are exceptions to the rules). The endings of the words usually tell you if it is feminine or masculine. The most common ones that you will find are O and A.
Here is a list of some more common feminine & masculine endings:
To change some words to the plural, for the endings with example - o, a, ??o, ss?o, ade, just add an s, but there are some general rules to remember. Let me try to give you a few examples below.
|Word (English)||Letters ending with||Subtract||Add||Results|
Here is a list of some articles:
Here are a few of the most common pronouns:
Note: A lot of times in the spoken Portuguese of Brazil, the pronoun is omitted because the verb conjugation tells who is doing or did or will do the action.
In the Portuguese language, there are what are called "Reflexive Pronouns". These really are identifiers of self action.
list of Reflexive Pronouns:
In Portuguese, when comparing objects to another, use the word - que (than).
When describing an object of like values / properties, you can use the word - como (as/like)
Here is a list of Comparisons:
|alto = tall||mais alto = taller||o mais alto = the tallest|
|pequeno = small||maior = bigger||o maior = the biggest|
|grande = big||menor = smaller||o menor = the smallest|
|bom = good||melhor = better||o melhor = the best|
|mau = bad||pior = worse||o pior = the worse|
To seperate compound nouns, the Portuguese language uses the preposition- de. I included the "literal translation" in the table below:
|Word (Portuguese)||Literal translation|
|phone card = cart?o de telefone||card of telephone|
|toe nail = unha de p?||nail of foot|
|tooth paste = creme de dental||cream of dental|
|bath towel = toalha de banho||towel of bath|
|hair cut = corte de cabelo||cut of hair|
One thing you need to remember with possessives in the third person, is when you are refering to ownership of an object, it is back wards. Let me use this table below to help explain:
|This car belongs to her = Este carro ? dela||This car is of hers|
|These are his socks = Essas s?o as meias dele||These are the socks of him|
|At their house = Em casa deles||At house of them|
|These are the keys to her car = Estas s?o as chaves do carro dela||These are the keys of the car of her|
|My fathers life = A vida do meu pai||Life of my father|
Starting to get the idea?
And here is a short list of some possessives:
Adjectives in Portuguese are different than in English in that they are used back wards. You have to remember to use them in reverse however; not always do Brazilians use them this way. And another thing you need to remember is that thing that I talked about in the beginning of this section - "Feminine" & "Masculine".
The subject or Noun must agree with the verb/adjective. Lets use "yellow house" as an example. Since house is the subject, and in Portuguese it is Feminine, then it will use the Feminine of yellow ( Amarela/o ) Below is a list as an example:
Contractions are words that are squeezed><together for easier pronunciation. The table below will show you some examples:
|in the||em + o/a||=||no/na|
|in a||em + um/uma||=||num/numa|
|in some||em + uns/umas/algum/alguma/alguns/algumas||=||nuns/numas/nalgum/nalguma/nalguns/nalgumas|
|from those||de + aqueles/aquelas||=||daqueles/daquelas|
|in that||em + aquele/aquela||=||naquele/naquela|
|in those||em + aqueles/aquelas||=||naqueles/naquelas|
|from here||de + aqui||=||daqui|
|in this||em + este/esta/esse/essa||=||neste/nesta/nesse/nessa|
|in these||em + estes/estas/esses/essas||=||nestes/nestas/nesses/nessas|
|from this||de + este/esta/esse/essa||=||deste/desta/desse/dessa|
|from these||de + estes/estas/esses/essas||=||destes/destas/desses/dessas|
|from that||de + aquele/aquela||=||daquele/daquela|
|from some||de + uns/umas/algum/alguma/alguns/algumas||=||duns/dumas/dalgum/dalguma/dalguns/dalgumas|